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Authority Record
Corporate body

2b theatre company

  • Corporate body
  • 1999-
2b theatre company was founded in 1999 by Christian Barry, Anthony Black, Andrea Dymond, Zach Fraser and Angela Gasparetto, and incorporated in May 2000 as Bunnies in the Headlights Theatre. In 2004 Barry and Black became artistic co-directors, refined the company’s artistic and operational vision with increased emphasis on touring, and renamed the company 2b. Many of their productions have been developed and produced in collaboration with other artists—writers, performers and musicians.

A. Keith and Son Limited

  • Corporate body
  • 1820-1971

A. Keith and Son Limited is one of the oldest brewing companies in Canada. It was established in 1820 by Alexander Keith after he took over a brewing business from Charles Boggs. The brewery was originally located in a house on Argyle Street in Halifax, Nova Scotia, but a larger facility was built on Lower Water Street in 1822. In 1836, Keith expanded again, building a new brewery on Hollis Street. In 1863, Keith Hall was built adjacent to the brewery on Lower Water Street and served as Keith's private residence, eventually becoming the headquarters of Oland and Son.

Alexander Keith was mayor of Halifax, president of the Legislative Council, and held many other public offices. He was involved with numerous boards, companies, charitable organizations, and societies. He died in 1873.

In 1928 Oland and Son Limited acquired an interest in A. Keith and Son. Later, a stock offering was issued and the company became a wholly owned subsidiary of Oland and Son. Oland and Son Limited maintained the A. Keith and Son brand and continued to brew Keith's products until John Labatt Limited purchased all of Oland and Son's brewing assets in 1971.

A. Keith and Son is best known for its Keith's India Pale Ale, but at different periods in the company's history it also brewed Keith's Stag's Head Stout, Keith's Bohemian Lager, and Keith's Medicinal Stout.

A. Neill and Company

  • Corporate body
  • 1765-1973
A printing company in Edinburgh, Scotland, Neill and Company was founded by Patrick Neill in 1765 out of the firm Balfour & Neill, after Balfour retired. Later, under the direction of Alexander Neill Fraser, the company was an early pioneer of mechanical typesetting; Neill Fraser invented a machine that was used in their own publications and sold to other companies into the early 1900s. The firm continued to expand for more than two centuries, before closing its doors in 1973.

Acadia Coal Company.

  • Corporate body
  • 1865-1914
The Acadia Coal Company, incorporated in 1865, was organized by James D.B. Fraser of Pictou, NS, who discovered the famous Stellar coal. Acadia Coal commenced working the original McGregor seam, as well as the Acadia seam, which had been discovered about two miles south-west of the Albion seam. The discovery gave a new impetus to coal mining in the district; the Acadia Coal Company extended its operations, and companies such as the Nova Scotia, Vale and some eight others were eventually abandoned or merged with the Acadia Coal Company, whose operations were the largest in Pictou County. T

Acadia University

  • Corporate body
  • 1838-
Acadia University was founded in 1838 by the Nova Scotia Baptist Education Society. It is located in Wolfville, Nova Scotia. The university was known as Queen's College from 1838 to 1841, when it was renamed Acadia College. The college awarded its first degree in 1843 and was renamed Acadia University in 1891. In 2013, Acadia University had 3,753 undergraduate students and 605 graduate students.

Acadian Supplies Company.

  • Corporate body

Acadian Supply Company was a ship chandler and merchandiser located in Lunenburg, incorporated on January 12, 1920 and operated till 1966. They sold coal, lumber, cement, building and fishing supplies, locks and keys and groceries. On October 28, 1966 Acadian Supply Co. was sold to A.B.C.O. Ltd. of Lunenburg, who kept the name until they closed, the original Acadian Supplies Co. operated under the name Acadian Holdings Limited until 1967 as they finished closing their accounts. R.S. Corkum was managing director until his death in November of 1929. He was replaced by Henry C. Winters on February 28th, 1930. Winters resigned in April of 1940 and replaced by J. Bertram Morash. Other directors over the years included Captain Leo P. Corkum, Captain Will Spindler, Hugh R. Anderson and B.S. Richard.

Acadian Vessel Company was a subsidiary of Acadian Supply Company, it was incorporated on May 5, 1930 and operated till 1964. They owned, bought, sold, and operated ships and vessels. In 1930 they owned the following vessels, Nina M. Conrad, Maria A. Spindler, Grace Buchner, Marshal Frank, Robert Esdale, Elizabeth Warde, Annie B. Gerhardt, M + L Coaster, Jean M. Madelin, Isabel F. Spindler, Leah Beryl and Howard Donald.

Both businesses were subsidiary companies under Adams and Knickle Ltd. (MS-4-27)

Adams and Knickle Limited.

  • Corporate body
Adams & Knickle Ltd., an important Lunenburg ship chandlery company, was founded in 1897 by Henry W. Adams and Alexander Knickle. The company began as the partnership of Knickle & Co. and changed its name to Adams & Knickle Ltd. in 1907. The company was incorporated on July 30, 1945 and continues under this name as of 2009. Primarily focused on outfitting vessels, the company owned and operated vessels involved in transporting fish to foreign markets from Nova Scotia and Newfoundland to Bermuda, Brazil, British West Indies, Cuba, Grand Turk Island, Portugal, and Puerto Rico. It also became involved in the landing and processing of dried and pickled fish for local and foreign markets. By 1957, Adams & Knickle introduced deep-sea dragging for scallops to the area. In the 1970s and 1980s, Adams & Knickle had an offshore fleet of seventy-seven vessels. In 2009, Adams & Knickle continues to maintain a small but successful scallop fleet.

Aerobics First

  • Corporate body
  • 1980-
Aerobics First is an independently owned run and ski store located on Quinpool Road in Halifax, Nova Scotia. The store has sold running and skiing equipment and organized running events since 1980.

AIDS Coalition of Nova Scotia

  • Corporate body
  • 1995 -
The AIDS Coalition of Nova Scotia (ACNS) was formed in 1995 through a merger of the Nova Scotia Persons With AIDS Coalition and AIDS Nova Scotia. The organization's mission is to promote and support the health and well-being of persons living with and affected by HIV/AIDS and to reduce the spread of HIV in Nova Scotia. Over the course of its operations, ACNS has conducted a number of advocacy and research projects related to HIV/AIDS, including the Gay Men and Alcohol Project and the Women and AIDS Project. Beginning in 1996, ACNS operated the Community AIDS Treatment Information Exchange (CATIE), a website that provided information about HIV/AIDS-related supports and services. ACNS has also organized AIDS Walk events since 1995, with the most recent walk taking place in November 2016.

AIDS Nova Scotia

  • Corporate body
  • 1985 -
AIDS Nova Scotia was first established in 1982 as the Gay Men's Health Association of Halifax, with a mission to provide supports and conduct advocacy efforts on behalf of persons living with HIV/AIDS [PWA's] in the Halifax area. After changing its name to the Metro Area Committee on AIDS [MACAIDS], the organization was incorporated on November 28, 1985. In 1992, MACAIDS once again changed its name to AIDS Nova Scotia [ANS]. For the duration of its operations, ANS connected PWAs with supports and services, and advocated for government action and improvements to the health care system. It also operated the INFORM-AIDS helpline during the late 1980s and early 1990s, which directed PWA's and their families to care and support services. In 1995, AIDS Nova Scotia merged with the Nova Scotia Persons with AIDS Coalition to form the AIDS Coalition of Nova Scotia.

Air Nova.

  • Corporate body
Air Nova was an airline based in Enfield, nova Scotia. Air Nova was amalgamated into Air canada in 2001.


  • Corporate body

Alpha Eta Chapter of Phi Rho Sigma Fraternity

  • Corporate body
  • 1925-
Phi Rho Sigma is a medical school fraternity founded in Chicago in 1890 with chapters located at throughout the United States and Canada. Dalhousie University established its chapter—Alpha Eta of Phi Rho Sigma— in 1925, with a nucleus of nine chartered members.

A.M. Bell and Company

  • Corporate body
  • ca. 1890-1912
A.M. Bell & Company grew out of Andrew Bell's retail hardware business, which he first established in 1875 on Water Street, in Halifax, Nova Scotia. After expanding into the wholesale trade and taking on Arthur B. Wiswall as a junior partner, the firm became know as A.M. Bell & Company. In 1903 they erected a six-storey building on a site between Granville and Hollis—the first concrete building in Halifax. Bell sold the business in 1912 and died two years later.

A.M. Smith and Company.

  • Corporate body


Nathaniel and Martin Smith were brothers, originally from Yankeetown, Hammonds Plains, Halifax County. Descendants of British Empire Loyalists from Maryland, they moved to Halifax, Nathaniel around 1865 and Martin following in 1870, to attend to growing business interests, establishing a branch cooperage and forming N. & M. Smith Limited.

Martin Smith died in 1889 at age 54. In 1904 the section of the Halifax waterfront with N. & M. Smith wharves and buildings – Lower Water Street between Sackville and Prince Streets – was completely destroyed by fire. This property was rebuilt, and N. & M. Smith Limited returned to it in 1905; however, in the interim they purchased and used a property on Upper Water Street known as Cronan Wharf, which was later leased and subsequently sold.

The original business of a cooperage expanded to the export of salted fish and the import of fishery salt. N. & M. Smith underwent voluntary liquidation in about 1915; Martin Smith’s widow and two sons Howard H. and Albert Martin (“Bert”) retained the premises. A.M. Smith Company Limited was formed in 1917, and in 1920 the company became incorporated and known as A.M. Smith and Company Limited.


Howard H. Smith died in the early 1920s and his interest in the company was acquired by his brother, Albert Martin Smith. Albert Martin’s sons Albert Martin Smith, Jr. (“Ad”) and Fletcher S. Smith entered the company business after graduating from Dalhousie University in 1929, the third generation of brothers to do so. Upon declaration of war, A.M. Smith, Jr., a lieutenant in the Royal Canadian Navy Volunteer Reserve, entered active service and spent eighteen months on a Canadian destroyer before being transferred to Halifax as a Staff Officer in the Executive Branch, with the rank of Commander. A. Martin Smith, son of “Ad,” was also in the business for a year or so, before leaving to establish his own law practice. Ad Smith died in 1970.

Under the management of Ad Smith and Fletcher S. Smith, the company embraced three main departments – Export, Import, and Domestic. The Smiths were the largest exporters of dry and picked salted fish products in the Maritime Provinces, benefiting from the science of the Atlantic Fisheries Experimental Station which adjoined the plant. Smith’s specialized in pickled mackerel and herring, which was sold in national and international markets.

The Import Department dealt in Fishery Salt, of which A.M. Smith and Company was the largest importer in Eastern Canada, bringing in cargo lots from world production centers. The Domestic Department was responsible for the creation of the “Sea-Nymph” brand of boneless codfish, and later kippered herring, which put bulk salt fish back on grocer’s shelves. The “Sea-Nymph” brand was packed by Smith Canneries, associates of A.M. Smith and Company.

By 1970, A.M. Smith and Company was almost wholly dependent on Newfoundland for supplies such as salted cod. Subsequently, when the Federal Salt Fish Act (Bill C175) was passed, and resulted in the creation of a state-owned company with a complete monopoly over all phases of the cured fish business, A.M. Smith and Company became redundant. The government refused to compensate redundant firms, and thus A.M. Smith and Company Limited were obliged to discontinue their waterfront business, and their property was sold on November 15, 1973. Fletcher S. Smith died in 1987.

The area formerly occupied by A.M. Smith and Company is now part of the Maritime Museum of the Atlantic on Lower Water Street, Halifax, NS.


Acadia Fisheries had a plant at Mulgrave, Nova Scotia, where it was for a time the largest employer in the area, with over 400 people on staff. The company purchased the Old Loggie Fish Plant in 1952, and used it as a base for the harvesting and processing of fish. The plant burned to the ground in the 1970s and was not rebuilt. The company was associated with A.M. Smith and Co.


Smith Canneries existed with virtually the same shareholders and directorate as A.M. Smith and Company, but with canning operations principally confined to Prince Edward Island. Fish for the plant was caught off the coast of Prince Edward Island, and subsequently packed under the “Sea-Nymph” brand, which included herring, salt herring, Dutch-style herring, mackerel, codfish, boneless salt cod, and ling. Smith Canneries also has use of the “Sea Nymph 1” dragger, a ship operated by A.M. Smith and Company for the salted and fresh fish trade.

American Institute of the History of Pharmacy.

  • Corporate body

The American Institute of the History of Pharmacy is an American association out of the University of Madison-Wisconsin Pharmacy School. The documentation and preservation of pharmacy's heritage is the primary aim of the Institute. They do this by making available a wide variety of materials related to scholarly, professional, and popular history of pharmacy. The Institute provides financial support for research designed to illuminate the history of the profession, the history of drug research and manufacturing, and the history of the uses of medicines in society.

AIHP serves as consultant to professional associations, teachers, libraries, museums, pharmacy schools, communications media, and scholars in the field. The Institute has co-operated with the agencies and associations of American pharmacy to promote professional development by providing historical research, information, and insight on the issues affecting pharmacy both past and present. The Institute sponsors symposia and workshops, often collaborating with groups like the American Pharmaceutical Association and the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy to foster research and publishing on ethics, technology, and other issues of importance to the field.

Anglo-Soviet Music Press Ltd.

  • Corporate body
  • 1946-
The Anglo-Soviet Music Press was a London publishing firm founded by Alfred Kalmus during World War Two, which aimed to introduce the works of Russian composers to a British audience.

Arthur Fordham and Company

  • Corporate body
  • 1867 - 1970
Arthur Fordham was a leather merchant based in Halifax, Nova Scotia. His shop was located at 148 Upper Water Street in the 1870s. The McAlpine's Halifax City Directory for 1883-1884 shows that Fordham resided at 3 Creighton Street and his shop was located at 106 Upper Water Street.

Arthur P. Schmidt

  • Corporate body
  • 1876-1960
The Arthur P. Schmidt publishing house was established by the man of the same name, shortly after his arrival in Boston from Germany in 1876. It began in conjunction with a music store, which Schmidt sold in 1889. He was known for his publications of American composers, and was the first American publisher to publish an American Symphony, Symphony No. 2 by George Whitefield Chadwick (1888). The company was acquired by Summy-Birchard in 1960.

Atlantic Federation of Students.

  • Corporate body

The Atlantic Federation of Students was formed in January 1975, as a union of students from 12 Atlantic universities and colleges. Internal and external conflicts led to its disbanding. Student councils in Newfoundland and New Brunswick withdrew from the Federation in 1978. On November 9, 1978, student representatives from 11 Nova Scotia post-secondary institutions met in Halifax to found a provincial organization to replace the AFS.

The AFS had links with the National Union of Students (NUS), which emerged in 1972 from the previous Canadian Union of Students (CUS), formed in the late 1920s. It also had ties to other Canadian student organizations, such as the Ontario Federation of Students (OFS) and L'Association Nationale des Etudiants du Quebec.

Atlantic Fisheries By-Products Association.

  • Corporate body

The Atlantic Fisheries By-Products Association was formed on September 8th, 1942 when ten representatives of the fish liver oil industry in Atlantic Canada decided to create an association "to take an active interest in the promotion, development and protection of the interests of all producers of fish liver oils along the Atlantic seaboard, and to work in close co-operation with the Fats and Oils Administration of the Wartime prices and Trade Board." They also acted as representatives of their members to transportation companies and government committees and officials. The By-Products Association supported the International Association of Fish Meal Manufacturers and was a member of the Fisheries Council of Canada. They also gave financial support in promotion of the use of fishmeal in livestock and poultry feeds.

The Association stopped operations on March 31, 1979 and their remaining interests, marine oil and seals, were taken over by the Nova Scotia Fish Packers Association and the Atlantic Fishing Vessel Association.

Andrew Cunningham was president of the Association for eighteen years. Other presidents included Karl Karlsen, L.C. Hume, W.R. Murdoch, B.J. Comeau, and O. Hjelkrem. Some members of Atlantic Fisheries By-Products Association included Acadia Fisheries Ltd., Booth Fisheries Ltd., Karl Karlsen and Co. Ltd., Lunenburg Sea Products Ltd., National Sea Products Ltd., Quebec United Fishermen, and Whitmoyer Laboratories Inc.

Atlantic Fishing Vessel Association.

  • Corporate body

The Atlantic Fishing Vessel Association, formerly called the Atlantic Trawler Association, was formed in 1970 to give a voice for the offshore fishing industry in Atlantic Canada. During their operations, the Association promoted improvements in vessel safety, design, equipment, and navigational and fishing aids. Members represented a large majority of the offshore fishing vessels operators in Atlantic Canada and Quebec who were primarily involved in the groundfish, scallops, and herring fisheries.

Some of the former presidents included L.C. Hume, P.P. Russell, B. Blais, J.B. Morrow, D.A McLean, and J.A. Reed. Some members of the Atlantic Fishing Vessel Association included B.C. Packers, Booth Fisheries, Comeau's Sea Foods Ltd., Connors Brothers, H.B. Nickerson, Mersey Seafoods Ltd., National Sea Products, Scotia Trawler Equipment Ltd., Usen Fisheries Ltd., and Swim Brothers.

Atlantic Ford Dealers Association.

  • Corporate body
Atlantic Ford Dealers Association is an association of car dealerships in Canada's Atlantic provinces.

Atlantic Institute of Education

  • Corporate body
  • 1970-1982

The Atlantic Institute of Education (AIE) was a short-lived degree-granting body providing graduate studies in education, curriculum research and development, and training for school board directors. It was conceived in 1969 as a cooperative initiative of the four Atlantic provinces to serve as a research and development arm of the education industry. However, Nova Scotia was the only province to enact legislation around it—the Atlantic Institute of Education Act.

The original idea was the brainchild of Nova Scotia premier and education minister Robert Stanfield and, in 1966, on the advice of the Association of Atlantic Universities (AAU), he commissioned the Fletcher report, which recommended that such an institute be established at Dalhousie’s Faculty of Graduate Studies. Despite the enthusiasm of Stanfield and the Nova Scotia Department of Education, the recommendation was not welcomed by the other provinces, Nova Scotia universities, or even Dalhousie.

Despite this, the institute was chartered in 1970, with a board of directors, an academic council, and offices at 5244 South Street. Joseph Lauwerys was appointed as the first director and Gary Anderson as assistant director. In December 1973 the AIE granted its first degrees. In 1975 W.B. Hamilton took over as director and, in an effort to encourage buy-in from the other provinces, he established representation on the academic council from all the provincial universities. In 1976 the institute joined the Association of Atlantic Universities and received support from a series of Nova Scotia ministers of education.

In August 1982 the new Conservative government withdrew all funding and the AIE was shut down.

Atlantic Lesbian/Gay/Bisexual Conference

  • Corporate body
  • 1993-

The first major conference hosted by the Atlantic Canadian gay community was Our Atlantic Gay Community: United Against Oppression, from 8 -10 October 1977. Events included workshops, meetings, an Artisan's Expo, dinner and dance at The Turret, and Halifax's first gay march. The conference was jointly organized by GAE and APPLE (Atlantic Provinces Political Lesbians for Equality.)

The following year the city hosted Building Solidarity: The Fight Against Repression, which marked the sixth national conference of the Canadian Lesbian & Gay Rights Coalition.

In 1979 the Atlantic Gay and Lesbian (AGL) Conference theme was Building a Community Spirit. In 1980 the AGL conference theme was Growing. The fourth AGL conference (1982) was held in Fredericton. By 1993 the conference name had changed to the Atlantic Lesbian/Gay/Bisexual Conference and the theme that year was We Are Everywhere. The conference had 230 people in attendance.

Atlantic Opera Society.

  • Corporate body
The Atlantic Opera Society was formed on December 4, 1972 to fill the need for a united opera community and promote professional opera in the Atlantic provinces. The Society was dedicated to helping foster the growth of local talent as well as technical and administrative operatic personnel. It aimed to gain national and international recognition for the local talent it fostered. The Society was based in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

Atlantic Publishers Association

  • Corporate body
The Atlantic Publishers Association (APA) was created in Halifax in 1978 to support the establishment and growth of book publishing houses owned and controlled in Atlantic Canada. A forum for publishers and other stakeholders in the region's publishing industry, it also undertook various promotional projects and studies.
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