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Authority Record

MacKay, W. Andrew

  • MS-2-541.1990-014
  • Person
  • 1929-2013

William Andrew MacKay was a Canadian lawyer and former judge, civil servant, legal academic and eighth president of Dalhousie University.

He was born on 20 March 1929 in Halifax, Nova Scotia, to Robert Alexander and Mary Kathleen MacKay. He began his schooling in Halifax and received his high school diploma in Ottawa before returning home to Dalhousie University, where he earned a BA (1950), JD (1953), and LLM (1954). He was admitted to the Nova Scotia Bar in 1954 and appointed Queen’s Council in 1973.

MacKay began his professional career in 1954 with the Canadian Department of External Affairs. In 1957 he was hired as an assistant professor of law at Dalhousie University, promoted to associate professor in 1959 and full professor in 1961. He received a Ford Foundation Fellowship to study at Harvard University in 1961 and was appointed George Munro Professor of Law. From 1964-1969 he served as Dean of Law and Weldon Law Professor, and in 1969 became Vice-President of Dalhousie under the administration of Henry D. Hicks. MacKay was appointed president and vice-chancellor on Hicks' retirement in 1980, positions he held until 1986. Throughout his administrative career he continued to teach constitutional and international law. After retiring from Dalhousie he served as Ombudsman for Nova Scotia from 1986-1988 and became a judge in the Federal Court of Canada (Trial Division) in 1988, where he served until 2004. From 2004-2007 he was a Deputy Judge of the Federal Court.

Andrew MacKay married Alexa Eaton Wright in July 1954, with whom he had one daughter, Margaret Kathleen. He died on 12 January 2013.

Nova Scotian Institute of Science.

  • Corporate body

The Nova Scotian Institute of Science was founded in 1862 as a direct descendant of the Halifax Mechanics’ Institute (1831–1860) and the Halifax Literary and Scientific Society (1839–1862). It is one of the oldest learned societies in Canada. The Institute was incorporated by an act of the Nova Scotia Legislature in 1890, the Revised Statutes of Nova Scotia in 1967, and received its first grant from the Legislature in 1867.

The Institute provides a meeting place for scientists and those interested in science and publishes The Proceedings of the Nova Scotian Institute of Science. The Institute's library was established in 1864 and is now housed in the Killam Library at Dalhousie University. It holds a number of periodical titles not available elsewhere in Canada.

Seigneurie de Berthier.

  • Corporate body
The seigneurial system was a semi-feudal method land distribution used in the North American colonies of New France. Seigneuries were parcels of land assigned to censitaires who were responsible for maintaining the land and paying various fees to seigneurs. Berthier County, Quebec was colonized through the signeurial system, which was formally abolished in 1854. This petition was created by residents of the area.

Halcon Science Fiction Society.

  • Corporate body
  • 1978-

Launched in 1978 by Bob Atkinson, John Bell, and Alain Chabot as an outgrowth of the Dalhousie University School of Library Service's Halycon I, the Halcon Science Fiction Society was a non-profit organization dedicated to the promotion of Science Fiction and Fantasy in the Atlantic Canada region. The Society held yearly conferences in Halifax, Nova Scotia, during the 1970s-1980s.

After laying dormant for a number of years, it was revived in 2010 and renamed Hal-Con. The convention is now being held at the World Trade and Convention Centre and Scotiabank Centre in downtown Halifax. Notable Guests of Honour and Toastmasters included A.E. Van Vogt, Spider and Jeanne Robinson, Robert Sheckley, Gordon R. Dickson, Galad Elfandsson and Ben Bova.

Chester Municipality.

  • Corporate body
The register was kept by the town clerk of Chester municipality.

Atlantic Federation of Students.

  • Corporate body

The Atlantic Federation of Students was formed in January 1975, as a union of students from 12 Atlantic universities and colleges. Internal and external conflicts led to its disbanding. Student councils in Newfoundland and New Brunswick withdrew from the Federation in 1978. On November 9, 1978, student representatives from 11 Nova Scotia post-secondary institutions met in Halifax to found a provincial organization to replace the AFS.

The AFS had links with the National Union of Students (NUS), which emerged in 1972 from the previous Canadian Union of Students (CUS), formed in the late 1920s. It also had ties to other Canadian student organizations, such as the Ontario Federation of Students (OFS) and L'Association Nationale des Etudiants du Quebec.

A.M. Smith and Company.

  • Corporate body


Nathaniel and Martin Smith were brothers, originally from Yankeetown, Hammonds Plains, Halifax County. Descendants of British Empire Loyalists from Maryland, they moved to Halifax, Nathaniel around 1865 and Martin following in 1870, to attend to growing business interests, establishing a branch cooperage and forming N. & M. Smith Limited.

Martin Smith died in 1889 at age 54. In 1904 the section of the Halifax waterfront with N. & M. Smith wharves and buildings – Lower Water Street between Sackville and Prince Streets – was completely destroyed by fire. This property was rebuilt, and N. & M. Smith Limited returned to it in 1905; however, in the interim they purchased and used a property on Upper Water Street known as Cronan Wharf, which was later leased and subsequently sold.

The original business of a cooperage expanded to the export of salted fish and the import of fishery salt. N. & M. Smith underwent voluntary liquidation in about 1915; Martin Smith’s widow and two sons Howard H. and Albert Martin (“Bert”) retained the premises. A.M. Smith Company Limited was formed in 1917, and in 1920 the company became incorporated and known as A.M. Smith and Company Limited.


Howard H. Smith died in the early 1920s and his interest in the company was acquired by his brother, Albert Martin Smith. Albert Martin’s sons Albert Martin Smith, Jr. (“Ad”) and Fletcher S. Smith entered the company business after graduating from Dalhousie University in 1929, the third generation of brothers to do so. Upon declaration of war, A.M. Smith, Jr., a lieutenant in the Royal Canadian Navy Volunteer Reserve, entered active service and spent eighteen months on a Canadian destroyer before being transferred to Halifax as a Staff Officer in the Executive Branch, with the rank of Commander. A. Martin Smith, son of “Ad,” was also in the business for a year or so, before leaving to establish his own law practice. Ad Smith died in 1970.

Under the management of Ad Smith and Fletcher S. Smith, the company embraced three main departments – Export, Import, and Domestic. The Smiths were the largest exporters of dry and picked salted fish products in the Maritime Provinces, benefiting from the science of the Atlantic Fisheries Experimental Station which adjoined the plant. Smith’s specialized in pickled mackerel and herring, which was sold in national and international markets.

The Import Department dealt in Fishery Salt, of which A.M. Smith and Company was the largest importer in Eastern Canada, bringing in cargo lots from world production centers. The Domestic Department was responsible for the creation of the “Sea-Nymph” brand of boneless codfish, and later kippered herring, which put bulk salt fish back on grocer’s shelves. The “Sea-Nymph” brand was packed by Smith Canneries, associates of A.M. Smith and Company.

By 1970, A.M. Smith and Company was almost wholly dependent on Newfoundland for supplies such as salted cod. Subsequently, when the Federal Salt Fish Act (Bill C175) was passed, and resulted in the creation of a state-owned company with a complete monopoly over all phases of the cured fish business, A.M. Smith and Company became redundant. The government refused to compensate redundant firms, and thus A.M. Smith and Company Limited were obliged to discontinue their waterfront business, and their property was sold on November 15, 1973. Fletcher S. Smith died in 1987.

The area formerly occupied by A.M. Smith and Company is now part of the Maritime Museum of the Atlantic on Lower Water Street, Halifax, NS.


Acadia Fisheries had a plant at Mulgrave, Nova Scotia, where it was for a time the largest employer in the area, with over 400 people on staff. The company purchased the Old Loggie Fish Plant in 1952, and used it as a base for the harvesting and processing of fish. The plant burned to the ground in the 1970s and was not rebuilt. The company was associated with A.M. Smith and Co.


Smith Canneries existed with virtually the same shareholders and directorate as A.M. Smith and Company, but with canning operations principally confined to Prince Edward Island. Fish for the plant was caught off the coast of Prince Edward Island, and subsequently packed under the “Sea-Nymph” brand, which included herring, salt herring, Dutch-style herring, mackerel, codfish, boneless salt cod, and ling. Smith Canneries also has use of the “Sea Nymph 1” dragger, a ship operated by A.M. Smith and Company for the salted and fresh fish trade.

Ocean Production Enhancement Network (OPEN).

  • Corporate body

The Ocean Production Enhancement Network (OPEN) was one of fifteen networks of Centres of Excellence funded in 1990 by Industry Science and Technology Canada. Network participants included scientists from Memorial University of Newfoundland, Laval University, Dalhousie University, McGill University, the University of Quebec at Rimouski, the University of British Columbia, Simon Fraser University, and the Department of Fisheries and Oceans. Three of Canada's largest seafood companies also participated in the network: National Sea Products, Clearwater Fine Foods, and Fishery Products International.

The goal of the network's research program was to investigate the processes which control the survival, growth, reproduction, and distribution of fish and shellfish. The research program was primarily focused on two species, the sea scallop (Placopectin magellanicus) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), which were chosen in consultation with the network's industrial partners. The twenty-nine projects which form the research program involved both laboratory and field studies. OPEN differed from other large scale oceanographic and fisheries research initiatives because it addresses questions of fundamental long-term interest to the fishing industry.

Club of Rome.

  • Corporate body
Aurelio Peccei and Alexander King founded The Club of Rome in 1968. Its organizational structure consists of a president, vice president, secretary general, treasurer, and executive committee, which holds the highest authority. The Club is composed of an international group of scientists, economists, business people, high civil servants, heads of state, and former heads of state who work together to identify the "world problematique" - the most crucial political, social, economic, technological, environmental, psychological, and cultural issues facing humanity. The Club's mission is to bring about change free of political, ideological, or business interests. Their mandate is to identify and analyze crucial global issues, generate alternative solutions, and raise awareness among important public and private decision-makers. The Club produces reports, sponsors conferences, and was an early user of the internet to disseminate information.

International Centre for Ocean Development.

  • Corporate body
The International Centre for Ocean Development (ICOD) was a Canadian Crown Corporation established in 1985. Its headquarters were located in Halifax, Nova Scotia. The ICOD assisted developing coastal and island nations in managing their ocean resources, with an emphasis on food production. The developing world's sudden and increased need for assistance with marine management was a result of Article 56 of The Law of the Sea (1982), which established exclusive economic zones (EEZs) extending as far as 200 nautical miles from the shore. As a result, many developing nations found themselves controlling considerably increased marine areas and resources. The ICOD provided Canadian expertise through personnel training, technical assistance, and specialized information. Its financial support was directed at developing the institutions, infrastructures, and human resources necessary for developing nations to sustain the work started by the ICOD. Borgese was the chair of the ICOD and a member of its Board of Directors from 1985 until it closed in 1992.

International Ocean Institute

  • Corporate body
  • 1972-
The International Ocean Institute (IOI) was founded in 1972 with the assistance of the United Nations Development Program, the Government of Malta, and the University of Malta. Its organizational structure consists of a Board of Trustees, a Planning Council, and a Directorate. The impetus for its establishment was the Pacem in Maribus conference, which was initiated in 1970. The original purpose of the IOI was to act as a conference secretariat and think tank, but it later turned its focus on training, specifically on training professionals from developing countries in various oceanographic areas. In 1978, it began producing the serial Ocean Yearbook.

Technical University of Nova Scotia

  • Corporate body
  • 1907-1997

The Technical University of Nova Scotia was founded as the Nova Scotia Technical College (NSTC) on 25 April 1907. In 1978 it was re-named the Technical University of Nova Scotia (TUNS), and in 1997 it amalgamated with Dalhousie University, temporarily becoming DalTech, a separate college within Dalhousie.

The school was established through the Technical Education Act to fill the province's need for a degree-granting technical college to offer the final two years of engineering study; Acadia, Dalhousie, the University of King's College and Mount Alison already had fledgling programs offering two-year diplomas. Over time, other Atlantic universities joined these associate institutions. The provincial government funded NSTC's operation until 1963, when the Board of Governors became responsible for the college's finances.

Under the direction of Frederick Henry Sexton, the first principal, classes began in September 1909 in a new building on former military land on Spring Garden Road obtained from the federal government in exchange for the inclusion of military instruction in the college's curriculum. Both faculty and students were directly involved in both world wars, and compulsory military training was discontinued in 1945.

NSTC initially offered courses in civil, electrical, mechanical and mining engineering. In 1947, coinciding with F.H. Sexton's retirement, the Technical College Act transferred the responsibility of technical education from the college's principal to the provincial education department. Chemical and metallurgical engineering were added to the curriculum in 1947, geological engineering in 1964, and industrial engineering in 1965. Atlantic Canada's first School of Architecture was established in 1961 and the School of Computer Science in 1982. MEng degrees began being offered in the 1950s and a PhD programme was established in 1962.

In 1978 the college's name changed to the Technical University of Nova Scotia, after 40 years of lobbying to circumvent its confusion with the Nova Scotia Institute of Technology and the Nova Scotia Teachers’ College and to end the institution’s identity as a "college." In 1986 an Advisory Board was put in place to ensure liaison between what was now the Technical University of Nova Scotia and its associate universities. TUNS's mission was articulated as contributing to the development of Nova Scotia though high quality education, research, and community and industry collaboration in architecture, computer science and engineering.

Provincial pressure to amalgamate TUNS and Dalhousie brought about the Dalhousie-Technical University Amalgamation Act in April 1997. TUNS became DalTech (Dalhousie Polytechnic of Nova Scotia) and existed as a constituent college within Dalhousie until early 2000. DalTech offered courses in the Faculties of Engineering, Computer Science and Architecture and the associated buildings were re-named the Sexton Campus in honour of NSAC's first principal. The campus had expanded over the years from the original building on Spring Garden Road to encompass much of the large block bounded by Spring Garden Road, Barrington, Morris and Queen streets.

Joint Review Panel for the Whites Point Quarry and Marine Terminal Project.

  • Corporate body
  • March 24, 2003-October 22, 2007

On March 24, 2003 Fisheries and Oceans Canada received a proposal from Bilcon of Nova Scotia for the construction of a 152-hectare basalt quarry, processing facility and marine shipping terminal at White’s Point, approximately 35 km southwest of Digby, Nova Scotia, along the shores of the Bay of Fundy.

A joint federal-provincial review panel for the Whites Point Quarry and Marine Terminal Project was announced on November 5, 2004. The three-member panel consisted of Dr. Bob Fournier, Dr. Jill Grant, and Dr. Gunter Muecke. On March 31, 2005 the panel released final guidelines for the preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), which would provide direction to Bilcon in preparing a statement of the project's anticipated environmental impact.

The joint panel review provided the report to the Ministers on October 22, 2007. The Ministers released the report on October 23, 2007.

After consideration of the report, the Minister of Environment and Labour announced on November 20, 2007 that the project posed unacceptable risk to the environment and to the community. The application to establish Whites Point Quarry and Marine Terminal was not approved.

Eastern Command Players.

  • Corporate body
The Eastern Command Players was an amateur theatre group formed around 1952 by Halifax military personnel. The group staged at least two performances; Dover Road was performed at the Barrington Street Armouries in 1953 and Blithe Spirit was performed at the Garrison Theatre in Windsor Park in 1954. The group was organized by a president who worked with other volunteers to manage productions. Known presidents of the Eastern Command Players include Capt. G.A. Penchard (ca. 1953).

Theatre 1707.

  • Corporate body
Theatre 1707, which first opened in March 1979, derived its name from its location at 1707 Brunswick Street in Halifax. The theatre was established to act as a permanent home for the Bit Players Society from Sydney, Nova Scotia. Its main focus was to produce plays by local playwrights, which were performed by local actors. The theatre operated under an open door policy, which allowed any group to use the facility freely. Throughout the year the theatre presented a series of plays, mime, puppetry, parties, art exhibits, musical concerts, and special events as well as provided workshops and classes for both children and adults.

Up Start Theatre Company.

  • Corporate body

Upstart Theatre originated with Tom Regan, who wanted to establish a Halifax theatre dedicated to producing plays previously unseen in the Halifax area. The first step to achieving his goal was the founding of Dark Night, a play-reading group, with Martin Surrette, L.H. Paris, and Sharon Kline. In 1988 Regan, Paris, and Kline were joined by Iris Quinn, Lynn Ostergaard, Pamela Robinson, Moira Dann, David Renton and Deborah Allen as the founding members of Upstart Theatre. Sten Eirik and Jennifer Hogan joined the group shortly thereafter. Upstart Theatre was self-supporting with assistance from provincial government grants and local donations, and was run primarily by volunteers.

In its first season, Upstart offered Lynn Ostergaard’s Moving Day and George Boyd’s Gideon’s Blues. The company was praised for tackling thought-provoking material. Although the company was artistically acclaimed, financial problems plagued it from the start. This, combined with the loss of venue in 1991, caused the theatre to cancel its 1991/1992 season. Although it was able to produce Betty Lambert’s Under the Skin in the fall of 1992, it was officially dissolved in September 1993.

Chester Playhouse.

  • Corporate body

The Chester Playhouse has been a home to the performing arts since it was built in 1938 in Chester, Nova Scotia, by Ken Corkum and Eric Redden. While its first tenant, the Keneric Theatre, operated for over thirty years as a cinema the building wasn't used for live performances until 1963 when the Chester Jesters began five summer seasons of productions.

In the mid-seventies the building was purchased by Leo and Dora Velleman who had done previous puppetry work in Toronto. They renovated the theatre, renamed it the Leading Wind Theatre, and established their theatre group Canadian Puppet Festivals (CPF) at the site. Managed by a board of directors, CPF was a non-profit organization which hosted workshops and puppet productions that included The Pirates of Penzance, and The Mikado. In 1983 the Vellemans retired and CPF merged with Mermaid Theatre.

The Chester Theatre Council (CTC) was founded in 1984 to preserve the Leading Wind Theatre. CTC originally sponsored touring productions but began leasing the building in 1987 as a venue for the first Chester Theatre Festival. In the same year Christopher Ondaatje purchased the theatre and leased it to the council, the theatre's name was changed to the Chester Playhouse, and seating renovations were made. The Ondaatje family donated the playhouse to the CTC in 1992 and the following year the entire building was renovated. In 1999 fundraising for a second wave of improvements began to create a better space for live performances. The renovations were completed in two phases which eventually resulted in new dressing rooms and workshop space, a new green room and new lobby, and an updated electrical system.

The CTC's mission is to "foster, promote, encourage and develop the performing arts and to maintain a community arts facility within the municipality of Chester." To achieve this, the council has managed the Chester Playhouse; hosted both touring companies and other performers; provided a venue for local performing arts groups, including the Chester Drama Society, the Chester Ballet School, and the Chester Brass Band; hosted workshops for all ages; established the Chester Theatre School program and the Chester Theatre Festival; and allowed its space to be used for local meetings. The CTC has brought nationally known performers and musicians to the Playhouse and they have hosted touring productions from Neptune, Rising Tide, and Jest in Time among others.

The Chester Theatre Council is managed by a board of directors consisting of a chairman, vice chairman, secretary, and treasurer. The council is assisted by five committees and the managing director who is responsible for the day to day management and direction of the theatre and is ultimately responsible to the board. Past managing directors include Jane Pyke and Eileen Maxwell (?-1989); Giny Duzak and Jan Morrison (1990); Peter Smith (1991-1996); Chris Heide (ca. 2004); and Erick Bickerdike (ca. 2006). The CTC continues to manage the Playhouse, the Chester Theatre School, and the Chester Theatre Festival.

Mulgrave Road Theatre.

  • Corporate body

Although formally registered in 1978 as the Mulgrave Road Co-operative Theatre, the origins of Mulgrave stretch back two years before, in 1976, when Robbie O’Neill was awarded a Canada Council grant to write and produce a play about the Nova Scotian town. Located on the eastern shore of Nova Scotia in close proximity to Cape Breton Island, Mulgrave experienced an economic decline after the construction of the Canso Causeway in 1954, which prompted O’Neill to explore “the past and convey something of what it was like being part of a proud community and county in decline.” Joined by Michael Fahey, Gay Hauser, and Wendell Smith, O’Neill and company co-wrote and performed in the play The Mulgrave Road Show, which—unintentionally—paved the way for Mulgrave Road Co-operative Theatre.

The theatre is now known simply as the Mulgrave Road Theatre, with a mandate to identify, develop, produce, and promote a theatrical experience which resonates with Atlantic Canadians. As a professional touring theatre, Mulgrave has performed several acclaimed productions throughout Nova Scotia and in several major Canadian cities, such as Ottawa, Toronto, Vancouver, Winnipeg, and Edmonton. Mulgrave also extended its audience beyond Canada to Ireland, Australia, Scotland, England, and New Zealand. Local productions take place at the Guysborough Masonic Hall, the Mulgrave Road Theatre Centre, and Chedabucto Place Performance Centre. The administrative office is located in a historic building in downtown Guysborough, which is also used for rehearsal and studio space.

Productions created by Mulgrave are developed in a number of different ways: commissioning, playwrights-in-residence, on-site and distance dramaturgy, work shopping drafts, and premiere productions. In the beginning, productions were mostly collective creations, such as Business of Living which was written by eighteen Atlantic playwrights. Other notable productions include I’m Assuming I’m Right (Frank MacDonald), From Fogarty’s Cove (Ric Knowles), Battle Fatigue (Jenny Munday), Marion Bridge (Daniel MacIvor), and Caribou (Michael Melski). Annual productions per year range from two to three performances. In addition to the touring company, Mulgrave also offers a youth program. ROADies is an annual summer drama lab aimed at youth in the area interested in exploring the world of theatre.

Mulgrave is managed by a board of directors consisting of a chair, vice chair, treasurer, secretary, artistic rep, and technical rep. Staff members include an administrator and artistic director. Mulgrave is a member of the Professional Association of Canadian Theatres, the Nova Scotia Theatre Alliance, and Arts Cape Breton. Additionally, Mulgrave is financially supported by the Canada Council for the Arts, the Nova Scotia Department of Communities, Culture, and Heritage, and the Municipality of the District of Guysborough.

Dark Night Theatre.

  • Corporate body

The Dark Night Theatre was established in January 1988 under the auspices of the Nova Scotia Drama League. It was a small informal group of writers, actors, and directors based in Halifax, Nova Scotia and it operated in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The mission of Dark Night Theatre was to promote interest in theatre, to develop and support writers (particularly those in Atlantic Canada), and to provide a forum for onging exchange of ideas and information.

Dark Night Theatre's primary activities involved script reading and critiquing. The group held weekly meetings each Monday at the Cunard Street Theatre, and later, the CBC Radio Room. The meetings were known as "ScripTease" and later, "Playwright's Corner." The reading series focused primarily on local theatrical works in development, but occassionally read plays of national or international significance. The group led to the creation of Upstart Theatre and had connections to the Dramatists' Cooperative of Nova Scotia.

Women in Media Foundation.

  • Corporate body

The Women in Media Foundation, originally called The Women’s Television Network Foundation, was formed in 1995 as part of the licenses agreement with the CRTC in launching the Women’s Television Network. Funded by the cable network, the foundation aimed to develop programs to assist women in areas of broadcasting where they are underrepresented, specifically technical operation positions.

Their Mission Statement and Core Principals were “At the WTN Foundation we inspire and educate Canadian women to participate and lead in the multi-media industry. In so doing we believe In diversity, equity, creative, excellence, integrity and learning.”

The foundation offered multiple programs and workshops to promote women in media and broadcast technology fields. The Girls TV Camp offered training for pre-teen and teenage girls as television technicians. The Women’s Technical Internship offered young women experience in hands on job skills in media and broadcasting technology and the Women’s Television Network dowment, was an educational fund to assist professional women in broadcasting and media to update their technology skills. Other programs and workshops included gender equity workshops, speaking engagements, creating lesson plans in video production for teachers and a girls travelling documentary team, taking girls to educational and technology courses across Canada.

In 2001 Corus Entertainment bought the Women’s Television Network, and moved all operations from Winnipeg, Manitoba to Toronto, Ontario. The media conglomerate planned on terminating the foundation. However, the foundation put forth a proposal to continue its funding by highlighting their accomplishments, their necessity, as well as the CRTC criteria in granting a license to the cable channel in 1995. Corus Entertainment agreed to continue funding the foundation until it wound down in 2008.

Seafood Producers Association.

  • Corporate body

The Seafood Producers Association of Nova Scotia, formerly known as the Nova Scotia Fish Packers Association, was formed in 1942 as a non-profit industry association to provide a voice for their members by representing them in dealings with the government, media, and the general public. All members have an equal say in the Association's activities. Members range from small to large seafood processors and are provided with information on topics relating to the fishing industry, including government actions and proposals. The Seafood Producers Association is affiliated with the Fisheries Council of Canada. It has no government affiliations, although they often act as industry advisors on various government committees including bilateral fisheries negotiations, government policies and regulations, over-the-side sales, and dockside grading. Along with being a liaison between members and government officials and the Fisheries Council of Canada, and providing information to their members, the Association has also prepared submissions and briefs, assisted in promotion of fish products in the United States and Canada, and provided financial support to research of the nutritional benefits of seafood.

In 1944, their name changed from Nova Scotia Fish Packers to the Fish Packers Association of the Maritimes when many processors from New Brunswick joined the Association. Their named changed back to Nova Scotia Fish Packers Association when fish packer associations were formed in New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island. At the annual meeting in 1980, the Nova Scotia Fish Packers Association became the Seafood Producers Association of Nova Scotia.

Out of their office on Hollis Street, and later their office on Alderney Drive in Dartmouth, they operated their sister organizations the Canadian Atlantic Salt Fish Exporters Association, Atlantic Fishing Vessel Association, Atlantic Queen Crab Association, and Atlantic Fisheries By-Products Association. The Seafood Producers Association's secretarial staff performed the same duties for these associations.

The first meeting was held on February 17, 1942, with H.G. Connor as the president. Over the years, presidents were elected from processing companies that were members. Some presidents included A. Kerr, J.B. Morrow, D.F. Corney, William Murdoch and D.R. Bollivar. The current president is Roger C. Stirling.

Past secretary-treasurers, executive directors, secretary-managers, assistant managers, and managers included H.P. Connor, Robert (Bob) Johnson, Roger C. Stirling, Bruce Chapman, Deborah S. Lawrence, Eric Roe, and John T. Salsbury. Some of the members of the Seafood Producers Association of Nova Scotia were Acadia Fisheries Ltd., Booth Fisheries Canadian Company Ltd., British Columbia Packers Ltd., Connors Brothers Ltd., Comeau's Seafoods Ltd., Karl Karlsen and Co. Ltd., Mersey Seafoods Ltd., National Sea Products, H.B. Nickerson and Sons, Snow Brothers Ltd., Swim Brothers Ltd., and United Maritime Fishermen Ltd.

The Seafood Producers Association of Nova Scotia is currently still active, but with fewer staff due to the decline in the fishing industry in Atlantic Canada.

Himmelman Shipping Company Limited.

  • Corporate body
Himmelman Shipping Company Limited was a subsidiary of Himmelman Supply Company. It was incorporated in 1974 and owned the motor vessel "O.K. Service" which shipped high explosives to the Caribbean. (See series O.K. Service for more information) The company was also involved in ships' agency and chartered vessels that shipped explosives from Himmelman's dock in Oakland, Mahone Bay. The last annual statement was filed in 1999 and the company was struck from the Registry of Joint Stock Companies in 2000.

O.K. Service III (Schooner).

  • Corporate body
M/V "O.K. Service III" was a 118-ton wooden auxiliary schooner built in 1931 by J. McLean and Sons in Mahone Bay, Nova Scotia. The vessel was operated by Himmelman Supply Company and Captained by S.L. Penney. The vessel was used to transport lobster and fish between ports in Atlantic Canada and Boston. Little is known about the M/V "O.K. Service III."

O.K. Service V.

  • Corporate body

The M/V "O.K. Service V" was a 144-ton wooden auxiliary vessel built in 1940 by W.C. MacKay and Sons in Shelburne, Nova Scotia. It was rebuilt in 1945. The vessel was operated by Himmelman Supply Company and O.K. Service Shipping Limited, and it was owned by various members of the Himmelman family and other shareholders.

The M/V "O.K. Service V" was used extensively as a general cargo vessel on the East coast of Canada. In later years, the vessel began carrying explosives from La Have, Nova Scotia to the Caribbean and Central and South America. The vessel was primarily Captained by Moyle Randall. Arthur D. Himmelman also acted as ship's master for some voyages.

In 1967 and 1968, the vessel was converted to a fishing longliner and used for fishing on the East coast of Canada. Poor catches and low prices in the fishing industry led the company to remove the fishing gear and overhaul the engines to try to sell the vessel. The vessel was sold to Andre H. Listhaeghe on August 19, 1970.

A. Keith and Son Limited

  • Corporate body
  • 1820-1971

A. Keith and Son Limited is one of the oldest brewing companies in Canada. It was established in 1820 by Alexander Keith after he took over a brewing business from Charles Boggs. The brewery was originally located in a house on Argyle Street in Halifax, Nova Scotia, but a larger facility was built on Lower Water Street in 1822. In 1836, Keith expanded again, building a new brewery on Hollis Street. In 1863, Keith Hall was built adjacent to the brewery on Lower Water Street and served as Keith's private residence, eventually becoming the headquarters of Oland and Son.

Alexander Keith was mayor of Halifax, president of the Legislative Council, and held many other public offices. He was involved with numerous boards, companies, charitable organizations, and societies. He died in 1873.

In 1928 Oland and Son Limited acquired an interest in A. Keith and Son. Later, a stock offering was issued and the company became a wholly owned subsidiary of Oland and Son. Oland and Son Limited maintained the A. Keith and Son brand and continued to brew Keith's products until John Labatt Limited purchased all of Oland and Son's brewing assets in 1971.

A. Keith and Son is best known for its Keith's India Pale Ale, but at different periods in the company's history it also brewed Keith's Stag's Head Stout, Keith's Bohemian Lager, and Keith's Medicinal Stout.

Bluenose II (Ship).

  • Corporate body

In 1962, Oland and Son Limited commissioned a replica of the famous schooner "Bluenose." The company's marketing and promotion activities were strictly regulated by the Nova Scotia Liquor Commission and it was eager to find acceptable ways to promote Oland products. The Oland Family were also strong promoters of economic development and maritime heritage in Nova Scotia, so the company commissioned the Bluenose II to promote its Schooner beer and to serve as a floating ambassador for the province.

Bluenose II was built by the Smith and Rhuland Shipyard of Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, the same shipyard that build the original Bluenose. Smith and Rhuland consulted with Angus Walters, the captain of the Bluenose and based the design of the Bluenose II on the W.J. Roue's designs for the Bluenose. The ship's design was modified to accommodate its role as a public relations asset for the company.

The Bluenose II was launched from the ways at the Smith and Rhuland shipyard on July 24, 1963. The schooner was chartered on trips and tours around the Maritimes during the summer months and spent some winters doing charters in the Carribbean. Oland and Son frequently hosted business and industry executives, government officials, and other guests on the Bluenose II. The schooner participated in the annual Lunenburg Fisheries Exhibition and in 1967, the Bluenose II acted as the official Expo '67 host vessel for Nova Scotia.

The schooner was a resounding success as a public relations tool and a provincial ambassador, but maintenance of the ship became too costly for the company to keep up with. In 1971, the "Bluenose II" was sold to the Province of Nova Scotia by the Oland Family for one dollar. The schooner still serves as an ambassador for the province and is now operated by the Lunenburg Maritime Museum Society.

Oland Investments Limited.

  • Corporate body

Oland Investments Limited was an investment trust company established by Sidney C. Oland in 1935. The company was created to consolidate Sidney Oland's personal holdings and his shares in A. Keith and Son Limited and Oland and Son Limited.

The company built a diverse investment portfolio by purchasing shares of a variety of Canadian and international companies, including Abitibi Power and Paper Company, Bank of Montreal, British American Oil Company, International Paper Company, Moosehead Breweries, and the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce. The company also had a significant stake in Ben's Holdings Limited, a food manufacturing company based in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Members of the Oland Family served on the Board of Directors of Ben's Holdings Limited.

In 1962, the company opened offices in Vancouver, British Columbia under the corporate name Oland Investments (Vancouver) Limited. Oland Investments Limited was controlled by Culverwell Holdings Limited, which owned 88% of the company's shares.

The company became inactive in 1993. After this occurred, Seahorse Investments Limited changed its name to Oland Investments Limited. That company is still an active investment and trading company.

Oland's Breweries (1971) Limited.

  • Corporate body

Oland's Breweries (1971) Limited was a brewing company established in Nova Scotia in 1971. The company was established as a subsidiary of John Labatt Limited after Oland and Son Limited sold its brewing assets to the John Labatt Group. Bruce Oland remained President of the company and Don remained a Director. Victor Oland's sons Sidney and Peter became general managers. The company operated the breweries in Halifax, Nova Scotia and Saint John, New Brunswick and continued to brew Oland's Export Ale, Schooner Beer, A. Keith and Son India Pale Ale, and other products brewed by Oland and Son Limited and its affiliated companies. Many of the executives of Oland and Son continued to work for Oland's Breweries (1971), including Norman Stanbury, Robert Merchant, and R.D. Mussett, and many of the plant employees remained with the company as well.

In 1977, the company dropped the (1971) indicator and changed its name to Oland Brewery Limited. It remains a subsidiary of the John Labatt Group. After the sale, Oland and Son Limited became Lindwood Holdings Limited, an investment and holding company. See the Oland and Son Limited and Lindwood Holdings Limited Series for more information.

Security Investments Limited.

  • Corporate body
Security Investment Limited was incorporated in Nova Scotia on March 30, 1935. The company was an investment trust company that was set up to share the liability and risks associated with purchasing stocks and other assets. Sidney Culverwell Oland was President, J. MacGregor Stewart was Vice- President, D.R. Turnbull and C.J. Burchell were Officers, and Victor DeBedia Oland was Secretary.

Stanbury Investment Limited.

  • Corporate body
Stanbury Investments Limited was incorporated in 1964 and acted as a stockbroker on the Montreal and Canadian Stock Exchanges. Norman Stanbury acted as President and Amadita Stanbury acted as Secretary. Norman, Amadita, and their son Christopher Stanbury acted as Directors of the company. The company ran investment clubs in which Bruce Oland, Norman Stanbury, and others participated in. Shortly after incorporation, the company experienced financial hardships due to an investment in Tartan Seafoods Limited. In January, 1967 the company took over the business of Stanbury and Company Limited, based in Halifax, Nova Scotia. The financial position of the companies continued to decline and in January, 1968 Stanbury Investments declared bankruptcy. After bankruptcy, the Stanbury family kept the corporate entity of Stanbury and Company alive and held investments in partnership with Lindwood Holdings Limited.

Seaside Inn.

  • Corporate body
The Seaside Inn was located in Lockeport, Nova Scotia, and managed by Mrs. W.H. Anderson. It advertised itself as a "home of travellers and tourists," with "fine bathing and good boating."

Burns and Company.

  • Corporate body
Burns and Company was a meat-packing and dairy business based in Winnipeg, Manitoba. The company was founded by Patrick Burns (1856-1937) as P. Burns and Company. In 1928, Burns sold his interest in the company and it was renamed Burns and Company Limited.

G.D. Campbell and Sons. G.D. Campbell and Company.

  • Corporate body
G.D. Campbell and Sons or Campbell and Co. was founded by Gordon D. Campbell in Weymouth, Nova Scotia. It was a shipbuilding, lumber, general store and trading outfit. In 1904 the Campbell Lumber Co. was established at Weymouth Bridge, N.S and shipped timber across Canada, as well as to the United States, Britain, and South America. The Campbell Lumber Co. ceased operations in 1920. However, G.D Campbell and Sons mercantile business continued to thrive and remained in business until 1955.

Halifax Seed Company

  • Corporate body
  • 1866 -
The Halifax Seed Company was founded in 1866 by Fred and John Tregunno, and is the oldest seed merchant in Canada. The company was originally located at 151 Granville Street , byt when the building was destroyed in the 1917 Halifax Explosion, they relocated to 5860 Kane Street. Fred Tregunno owned and worked at the Halifax Seed Company until his death on 30 July 1960. On his death, his sons, Warren Tregunno (b. 1929) and Paul Tregunno (b. 1937), took over administrative control. Warren Tregunno, who served as vice-president and treasurer, was a graduate of the Truro Agriculture College and Mount Allison Commercial College; his brother, Paul, graduated from Dalhousie University with a degree in commerce. Still in operation in 2020, the company has outlets in New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island.

Frieze and Roy

  • Corporate body
  • 1839-

Frieze and Roy were shipping merchants from Maitland, Nova Scotia. David Frieze started the company in 1839, when he ran a general store as well as owning and operating sailing vessels. Adam Roy joined Frieze in business in the 1860s and they became Frieze and Roy in 1868. In addition to running his business, Adam Roy served as a justice of the peace and was associated with the Maitland School. Frieze and Roy both had connections to the Maitland Presbyterian Church and the Sons of Temperance chapter. Alexander Roy, Adam Roy's brother, built many of their ships, while Adam Roy's brother Thomas Roy, along with members of the MacDougall and Douglas families, served as captains. Their vessels included the well-known Barque Snow Queen (1876-88), the Esther Roy, the Linwood and the Brig Trust. With the decline in the shipping industry during the 1880s, they switched their focus to their general store, which sold a wide range of goods such as hardware, lumber, candy, groceries, kitchenware, fabric, shoes and toys. David Frieze's son George was also involved with the business.

Roy's son, Adam Frederic (Fred) Roy, took over the business when he was 19, and his daughter, Margaret Sanford, in turn inherited it. The 1970s saw a decline in business due to the building of a bridge that linked Maitland closer to Truro. In 2004 Glenn Martin purchased the store from the Sanfords to preserve it, with the agreement that he would maintain store's long history. The Frieze and Roy General Store still operates in Maitland, primarily selling giftware and souvenirs. It remains one of the oldest businesses in Nova Scotia.

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