Showing 4079 results

Authority Record

Ballon, Ellen

  • Person
  • 1898-1969

Ellen Ballon was born in Montreal on October 6, 1898 of Jewish Lithuanian immigrant parents. She started taking piano lessons at an early age, beginning her studies at the Conservatorium at McGill under Clara Lichtenstein, a former student of Liszt, in March 1904. She gave her first concert appearance at the age of five. In 1906 she moved to New York to study piano with Rafael Joseffy and harmony with Rubin Goldmark. She performed for Sir Wilfred and Lady Laurier in New York (1909) and made her New York debut in 1910.

In 1914 she moved to Switzerland to study with Josef Hofmann, but wartime conditions forced her return to New York in 1916. She performed as a concert pianist throughout these years, and became a pupil of Wilhelm Backhaus in 1925. Ellen Ballon toured Europe in 1927, and upon her return to Canada, established a scholarship in music at McGill University. She toured Canada in 1928, and in 1934 returned to England to live. Her career suffered a fallback in 1938 when she broke her right ankle getting out of a taxicab. Two years later her leg had healed sufficiently that she could resume concert performances, so she recommenced her career and moved to New York City.

In 1942, both of Ellen Ballon's parents died, and she began to participate actively in war efforts. In 1945 she commissioned a concerto from the Brazilian composer, Heitor Villa-Lobos and performed the world, American and Canadian premiers of this work in 1945, 1946, and 1947, respectively. Ellen Ballon was awarded an honorary degree of Doctor of Music by McGill University in 1954. She married Colonel Theodore LaFleur Bullock of Quebec in 1958 and died in Montreal in 1969.

Baniassad, Essy

  • Person
  • 1936-
Esmail (Essy) Baniassad was Dean of Architecture at the Technical University of Nova Scotia from 1980-1994. Born 29 November 1936 in Tehran, he came to the United States in 1957 to study architecture at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. After completing a Masters and PhD at the University of Manchester, in 1978 he came to the Technical University of Nova Scotia (now Dalhousie Faculty of Architecture and Planning) as a visiting critic. In 1980 he was appointed Dean. He was the founder of TUNS Press (now Dalhousie Architectural Press) and implemented a change in architectural education from the traditional five-year program to a two-part program—three years, followed by a two-year MArch degree. He helped to design an addition to the school’s building on Spring Garden Road. Essy worked with many international universities, starting the Dalhousie-Botswana partnership in architectural education, and helped to establish the School of Architecture at the University of Botswana. He also worked at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. He retired from Dalhousie in 2000, and continues to work internationally in architecture education and architectural development.

Bank of British North America.

  • Corporate body
The Bank of British North America was a chartered bank founded in London, England in 1835. The bank received its royal chater in 1840. It had offices in Toronto, Montreal, Quebec City, Saint John, New Brunswick, Halifax and St. John's, Newfoundland. It also operated agencies in New York City and San Francisco. In 1918, the bank merged with the Bank of Montreal.

Banks, Catherine

  • Person
  • 1957 -

Catherine Banks is an award-winning playwright. She was born in 1957 in Middleton, Nova Scotia, and was educated at Digby Regional High School before earning her BA (1978) and BEd (1979) from Acadia University. From 1980-1985 she worked as a special education teacher in Shelburne and Halifax, and began writing for the theatre while raising her children, Rilla and Simon.

Her plays, frequently described as "Atlantic Gothic," have been performed across Canada and have received numerous awards and critical recognition. In 2008 Catherine Banks received Nova Scotia’s Established Artist Award for her body of work. Three Storey, Ocean View won the du Maurier National Play Competition's Silver Medal in 1995 and was nominated for a Merrit Award for best new play in 2000. Bone Cage received a Special Merit prize in Theatre BC's New Play Competition in 2002, was showcased at the National Arts Centre's On the Verge in 2005, and was awarded the Governor General’s Literary Award for (English) Drama in 2008. In 2012 It is Solved by Walking won Catherine Banks the Governor General's Literary Award for (English) Drama for a second time.

An active member of the Canadian theatre scene, Banks has participated in numerous readings and workshops and collaborated with theatres across the country. She served on the faculty of Sage Hill Writing in 2018, 2020, and 2021. She is a founding member and past president of the Playwrights Atlantic Resource Centre and has served as the Atlantic representative for the Playwrights Guild of Canada.

Banting, Angus

  • Person
  • 1908-1966
(Edward) Angus Banting was born in Alliston, Ontario on January 19, 1908. He earned a Bachelor of Science (Agriculture) from the Ontario Agricultural College (Guelph, Ontario) in 1933, and a Diploma in Education in 1934. He taught high school in Beamsville, Ontario from 1934-1937 before moving to Nova Scotia to be the head of Agricultural Engineering at the Nova Scotia Department of Agriculture. He was also the first professor of Agricultural Engineering at the Nova Scotia Agricultural College. He was a founding member of the Canadian Farm Building Plan Service in Truro. In 1952 he left NSAC to teach at MacDonald College (McGill) in Montreal. He was the Director of the diploma course from 1960-1963 at MacDonald College. He retired in 1963 and passed away March 9, 1966. He helped developed agricultural engineering in Nova Scotia, was a leader in land drainage and marshland reclamation. He also developed a chicken plucking machine that was patented on July 4, 1944 that made it easier for everyone to use items from home to build their own machines. It was very popular. Angus Banting was the nephew of Sir Frederick Banting, who invented insulin for diabetes. Angus also has a building named after him at the Nova Scotia Agricultural College.

Barati, George

  • Person
  • 1913-1996
George Barati was a Hungarian-American cellist, composer, and conductor. He studied under Zoltán Kodály and Leo Weiner at the Liszt Academy of Music in the 1930s and became well-known as a performer throughout Hungary. In 1938, he immigrated to the United States of America where he studied composition at Princeton University and taught cello until 1943. From 1946 until 1950, he was a cellist with the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra, when he moved to Oahu to conduct the Honolulu Symphony Orchestra (1950-1967). He returned to California in 1968.

Barker, Becka

  • Person

Becka Barker is an interdisciplinary artist based in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Barker's work has been exhibited at venues such as the Ottawa International Animation Festival, Seoul’s EXiS (winner 2007, Best International Film), Nocturne Art at Night (Halifax), Images Festival (Toronto), Festival du Nouveau Cinéma (Montreal), KunstDoc Art Gallery (Seoul), Halifax Independent Filmmakers Festival, Atlantic Film Festival, Eyelevel gallery (Halifax), and Echo Park Film Centre (Los Angeles). She was Executive Director of the Centre for Art Tapes from 2002 to 2004 and has been regular part-time faculty at NSCAD University since 2005. She has also served on the board of Nova Scotia arts organizations including the Centre for Art Tapes.

Barker has also been involved in educational research since earning her Master's of Education in 2010 from the Univeristy of Calgary. Her research focuses on literacy, media art education, language teaching pedagogy, and studio-based learning in academic educational contexts. She has shared her work at KOTESOL Pan-Asian Consortium (2010), TESL Canada (2012), CSEA/CAGE (2013), NSATA (2013, 2014), DCUTL (2016), AWELL (2014, 2016), UAAC (2016), and STLHE (2017).

Barkhouse, Joyce Carmen

  • Person
  • 1913-2012

Joyce Carman Barkhouse (nee Killam) was born in Woodville, Nova Scotia, on 3 May 1913. She was the middle of five children born to Harold Edwin and Ora Louise Killam. Barkhouse attended the small rural school in Woodville until grade eleven, when she transferred to the King’s County Academy in Kentville to complete grade twelve. In 1932 she earned her Teacher’s License from the Provincial Normal College in Truro, and began teaching in Sand Hill, Nova Scotia. In 1939 she taught in Liverpool, where she met Milton Joseph Barkhouse, a teller with the Royal Bank of Canada. They married in 1942 and had two children, Murray Roy and Janet Louise. Milton’s position with the Royal Bank took them from Liverpool to Halifax, Charlottetown and Montreal. In 1968, following the death of her husband, Joyce Barkhouse returned to Nova Scotia.

Barkhouse’s writing career began in 1932 with the publication of a short story in the Baptist church paper, The Northern Messenger. Her subsequent articles and short stories, primarily written for a younger audience, have appeared in church papers, anthologies, textbooks and periodicals; her column, For Mothers and Others, appeared in newspapers throughout Nova Scotia from 1973–1976. In 1974, at the age of sixty-one, Barkhouse published her first book, a biography of the geologist, George Dawson. She went on to published eight children's books, including Pit Pony, which was adapted for television by CBC, and Anna’s Pet, co-authored with her niece Margaret Atwood, and adapted for stage by Mermaid Puppet Theatre.

In 1993 the Joyce Barkhouse Writing for Children Award was established by the Writers’ Federation of Nova Scotia (WFNS). Barkhouse herself received the Ann Connor Brimer Award from the Nova Scotia Library Association in 1991; the Valuable Contribution to Children's Literature Award from the Nova Scotia Children's Literature Roundtable in 1990; the Marianna Dempster Memorial Award from the Canadian Authors Association in 1989; the Cultural Life Award for outstanding service to the cultural life of Nova Scotia in 1982; and First Prize, Children's Fiction, from WFNS in 1979. Barkhouse was named to the Order of Nova Scotia in 2007 and to the Order of Canada in 2009.

Barkhouse died in Bridgewater, Nova Scotia, on 2 February 2012.

Barkow, Jerome H.

  • Person
  • [19--] -

Jerome H. Barkow is a socio-cultural anthropologist and professor emeritus in Dalhousie's department of sociology and social anthropology, and an honorary professor at Queen's University, Belfast. He received his BA in psychology from Brooklyn College in 1964 and PhD in human development from the University of Chicago in 1970.

Barkow's work has included field research in Nova Scotia, West Africa and Indonesia; his publications are wide-ranging and include the acclaimed Darwin, Sex and Status: Biological Approaches to Mind and Culture (1989). His edited works include The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture (1992), with Leda Cosmides and John Tooby; and Missing the Revolution: Darwinism for Social Scientists (2006).

Barkow served on Dalhousie University's Committee on African Studies in 1969-1970, and organized panels for the fourth annual conference of the Canadian Association of African Studies held at Dalhousie from 27 February- 2 March 1974.

Barley Bree

  • Corporate body
  • [ca. 1977]-[ca. 1995]
Barley Bree was an Irish-Canadian band active in the 1980s and 1990s. The band comprised Tom Sweeney and Jimmy Sweeney (nephews of Tommy Makem), Donegal fiddler P.V. O’Donnell and Brian Doherty. The group was formed in Northern Ireland but moved to Canada in the 1970s. Barley Bree released eight albums and hosted a weekly television series called Barley Bree which lasted for two years.

Barnett, Kezia

  • Person
Kezia Barnett is a director, film-maker and an artist from New Zealand. Barnett holds a degree from the Elam School of Fine Arts, Auckland University. Barnett has won multiple awards for her short films and music videos. Kezia Barnett became associated with the Centre for Art Tapes in the 1990s because their audio recording became a part of the centre’s tape collection.

Baronets of Nova Scotia

  • Corporate body
  • 1625-1706
In 1625, King James I established the Order of Knight Baronets of Nova Scotia. The baronetage was devised as a means of settling the territory granted to Sir William Alexander in 1621. King James died before the scheme was implemented, but it was continued under Charles I. In 1633, Charles announced that English and Irish persons could receive the honor. Baronetcies included Nova Scotia land grants until 1638. The last baronet created in the baronetage of Nova Scotia was created in 1706. After the union with England in 1707, English and Scottish people received Baronetcies of Great Britain.

Barron, Doug

  • Person
Doug Barron is a music producer who is known to have produced recording sessions at Solar Audio & Recording Limited in the middle to late 1980s.

Barsive, Izabel

  • Person
Izabel Barsive is a visual artist, filmmaker, producer, camera person and editor. She runs her company, Barsive Productions in Ottawa. Since 2005, Barsive has also been a part-tome professor at the University of Ottawa and St-Paukl University. Barsive became associated with the Centre for Art Tapes in 2009 because their video recording “Lustrale” became a part of the centre’s tape collection.

Bassett, John White Hughes

  • Person
  • 1915-1998
John Bassett, a Canadian media proprietor and politician, who started as a reporter with the Toronto Globe and Mail before enlisting with the Canadian army during World War II. After the war, he purchased his father's newspaper, The Sherbrooke Daily Record, followed by the Toronto Telegram. In 1960, Bassett turned to television as part of a consortium in charge of CFTO-TV. He also acted as Chairman of the Security Intelligence Review Commission and was appointed to the Privy Council of Canada. In 1985, he was made an Officer of the Order of Canada, and in 1992, he was elevated to Companion of the Order of Canada. Bassett died on April 27, 1998.


  • Corporate body

Battaglia, Noreen

  • Person
Noreen Battaglia became associated with the Centre for Art Tapes in 1995 because their video recording “Arrivederci Rosie & Anna” became a part of the centre’s tape collection.

Battersby, Cooper

  • Person
Cooper Battersby is a Canadian artist who works in printed matter, installation, new media, curation, sound and video. Battersby’s education includes a BFA from the Nova Scotia College or Art and Design and a MFA at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Battersby currently teaches at Syracuse University in New York. Battersby frequently, if not always, collaborates with longtime partner, Emily Vey Duke. Battersby became associated with the Centre for Art Tapes in 2006 because his film with Emily Vey Duke, "Songs of Praise for the Heart Beyond Cure", became a part of the centre’s tape collection.

Bauer, Bob

  • Person
  • 1950-
Robert Paul (Bob) Bauer was born on January 24, 1950 in Welland, Ontario. He studied music at the University of Toronto, studying composition with John Beckwith and John Weinzweig. Following his graduation in 1972, he co-founded ARRAYMUSIC and taught guitar at the Brodie School of Music. He joined the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) in Toronto in 1976. In 1980, he moved to Ottawa, working with conductor Peter McCoppin, and several works for guitar. In 1988, he moved to Halifax where he was one of the founding members of the Upstream Music Association. He retired from CBC in 2007.

Baxter, James, 1844

  • Person
James Baxter was born in Onslow, Nova Scotia in 1844. The son of the Rev. John Baxter, he attended the Theological Seminary in Truro, Nova Scotia before studying at Halifax's Dalhousie College from 1863 to 1864. James Baxter is known to have attended lectures delivered by James Ross at both institutions.

Baxter, Larry

  • Person
  • January 17, 1951 -

Larry Baxter is an HIV/AIDS activist, community volunteer, and former health care worker residing in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Raised in the Annapolis Valley, Larry graduated from Middleton Regional High School in 1969 before attending Dalhousie University, where he was awarded a Bachelor of Arts degree in Political Science in 1972. Larry was the Program Director and Youth Consultant for the Canadian Red Cross from 1972-1996. He later worked as a home support worker until is retirement in 2014.

As a person living with HIV, Larry has participated in and/or facilitated a wide range of organizations and research projects regarding HIV/AIDS. Larry has been a knowledge user on projects related to HIV and aging, as well as a patient advisor on several primary health care focused research projects within Nova Scotia. Larry chaired AIDS Nova Scotia [formerly MACAIDS] for a term, and sat on the Nova Scotia Advisory Commission on AIDS from 2000-2010. He was Secretary for the NAMES Project from 1999-2013, serving as the main custodian of the AIDS Memorial Quilt for over a decade until it was passed onto the Canadian AIDS Society. He has also volunteered in myriad other ways to support interests such as food security, care-giving and social justice.

Baylis, Françoise

  • Person
  • 1961 -

Françoise Baylis is a Canadian bioethicist whose work is at the intersection of applied ethics, health policy and practice. The focus of her research is on issues of women's health and assisted reproductive technologies, while her research and publication record also extends to topics such as research involving humans (including human embryo research), gene editing, novel genetic technologies, public health, the role of bioethics consultants and neuroethics. She works as a public intellectual who regularly engages with print, radio, television and online media, and she is a frequent commentator on CBC Radio and Radio-Canada.

Baylis was born in Montreal in 1961. She holds a BA in Political Science from McGill University (1983), and an MA (1984) and PhD (1989) in Philosophy from the University of Western Ontario. In 1996 she came to Dalhousie University as an Associate Professor in the Office of Bioethics Education and Research (later the Department of Bioethics), and in 2004 she was appointed Professor and Canada Research Chair in Bioethics and Philosophy. She is currently appointed to the Faculty of Medicine, with cross-appointments in both Philosophy and Obstetrics & Gynaecology. Baylis is the founder and leader (since 2003) of Novel Tech Ethics (now NTE Impact Ethics), an interdisciplinary research team based at Dalhousie University.

In 2007 Baylis was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and the Canadian Academy of Health Sciences. Other notable career achievements include being named to the Who's Who in Black Canada and the Canadian Who's Who; holding three Governor-in-Council appointments, including membership in the Canadian Biotechnology Advisory Committee (1999-2001); serving as a member of Governing Council, Canadian Institutes of Health Research (2001-2004); sitting on the Board of Directors, Assisted Human Reproduction Canada (2006-2010); serving as the Royal Society of Canada Academic Secretary (Academy I) and the Atlantic Steering Committee Chair (2012-2015); and holding a Canada Research Chair (Tier 1) in Bioethics and Philosophy (2004-2018). In 2016 Professor Baylis was inducted into both the Order of Nova Scotia and the Order of Canada. In 2022 she received the prestigious Killam Prize, granted annually by the Killam Trusts.

Further details of her scholarly and professional activity can be found at

Bean, Robert

  • Person
Robert Bean is an artist, writer and teacher based in Halifax. Bean is currently a Professor at NSCAD University in the Media Arts department. Bean’s education includes a BFA from NSCAD University (1977) and a MA in Cultural Studies from the University of Leeds (1999). Bean became associated with the Centre for Art Tapes in 2012 because their video recording "Polyphony: The longest English word that can be typed with the right and using conventional placement" became a part of the centre’s tape collection.

Beaverbrook, Lady

  • Person
  • 1909-1994
Marcia Anastasia Christoforides was born on July 27, 1909 in Sutton, England. She worked as the personal secretary of Sir James Dunn, and they eventually got married in 1942. Upon his death in 1956 she became the beneficiary of his estate and the Sir James Dunn Foundation, which was to be used for charitable purposes. Lady Dunn gave $2.5 million for construction of Sir James Dunn Science Building at Dalhousie in 1957, in her late husband’s honour. She remarried in 1963, to the equally wealthy Max Aitken (Lord Beaverbrook), becoming known as Lady Beaverbrook. In 1967 she established the Sir James Dunn Law Library in the Weldon Building, as well as establishing seven Sir James Dunn law scholarships ($1500 a year, upped to $2500 in 1967, ended in 1978). In 1967 she was given an honorary degree from Dalhousie. She became Dal’s second Chancellor in 1968 (until 1990) after CD Howe. In 1968 she gave $500,000 for the Sir James Dunn Theatre in the Dalhousie Arts Centre. After a fire at the law school in 1985, she donated $2 million to restore the law school and its library holdings. Former chancellor CD Howe considered her the Guardian Angel of Dalhousie. She contributed over $300 million in her life from Dunn and Beaverbrook estates to charitable donations. The Sir James Dunn Foundation and Lady Dunn (Beaverbrook) gave around $22 million to charities in the Maritimes, and $5 million to Dalhousie from 1957-1994. Lady Dunn passed away in 1994.

Bebb, James Trevor

  • Person
James Trevor Bebb was from Lockeport, Shelburne County, Nova Scotia. He has written 2 books on Lockeport and Shelburne County. “Ships and Seamen of the Western Ocean: A South Shore Odyssey”, c.1997 and “Quest for the Phantom Fleet, c.1992. He went around the Shelburne area and salvaged many original documents from local businesses that were going out of business. During many years of doing research, he produced many research notes and accumulated substantial photocopied material. It was decided to keep the material together and call it The Lockeport Historical Collection instead of dividing the material into different fonds, because some of the original documents have been interfiled among the photocopies and research notes.

Becke, Axel

  • Person
Axel Dieter Becke was born on June 10, 1953 in Esslingen, Germany. He immigrated to Canada, and later graduated with a Bachelor in Science from Queen’s University in 1975. He got his Masters in 1977 and PhD in 1981 (both from McMaster). From 1981-83 he worked as a Killam postdoctoral fellow at Dalhousie University, and then went to teach at Queen’s. He returned to Dalhousie in 2006 to teach, and was made the Killam Chair in Computational Science until 2015. His work focuses on Density Function Theory and computational chemistry. In 2000 he was awarded the Schroedinger Medal from the World Association of Oriented Chemists, and in 2006 was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in London. In 2014, he became the first Canadian to receive the premier award in the field of theoretical chemistry from the American Chemical Society. In 2015 Axel Becke was awarded the Gerhard Herzberg Medal for Science and Engineering – the highest honour in science in Canada, which comes with a $1M prize. He is one of the most widely cited scientists, with two of his papers in the top 25 cited science papers of all time. His work on Density Function Theory has been groundbreaking for chemistry and all aspects of science, and he continues to innovate and progress the field. Becke retired officially in 2015 but still works at Dalhousie in the Department of Chemistry.

Bednarski, Eric

  • Person
Eric Bednarski is a documentary filmmaker born and raised in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Bednarski’s education includes a MA in Polish history (2002) from York University. Bednarski has worked between Canada and Poland since 2003, working on various film projects. Bednarski became associated with the Centre for Art Tapes in 2005 because their video recording “MDM” became a part of the centre’s tape collection.

Beecher, Bonnie

  • Person
Bonnie Beecher is a lighting designer from Toronto, Canada, who has designed for over 350 theatre, opera, and dance productions. She has worked with various companies in Canada, including The Shaw Festival, The Stratford Festival, The Canadian Opera, Opera Atelier, Soulpepper theatre, The National Arts centre, The National Ballet of Canada, Tarragon theatre, The Segal, The Citadel, and Ballet British Columbia. She has also worked with The Dutch National Ballet, American Ballet Theatre, The Glimmerglass Opera, The Versailles Royal Opera, Pacific Northwest Ballet, The Royal Shakespeare Company, The New Zealand Opera, The Dortmund Ballet, The Royal Flanders Ballet, Ballet du Rhin in Mulhouse, The State ballet of Georgia, and Ballet Im Reveir in Germany. She also designed the lights for 7 world premieres for The Stuttgart Ballet, and collaborated with the Kevin O'Day Ballet in Mannheim, Germany for 14 seasons (2002-2016) where she designed the lighting for more than 25 world premieres for the company.

Bell, Hugh Philip

  • Person
  • 1889-1957
Hugh Philip Bell was a noted botanist and former head of Dalhousie University biology department. He was born on 22 February 1889 in Halifax, Nova Scotia, to Charles Bell and Isabella Jane Ray. He was educated in Halifax schools and attended Dalhousie University, where he studied botany and played an active part in college activities. After graduation he taught at Morris Street School in Halifax and at the Lunenburg Academy. During World War One Bell served as a captain with the RCRs in France, where he was wounded severely. On returning from the war he received his PhD degree from the University of Toronto before being appointed at Dalhousie, where he remained until his retirement in 1954. Bell was an associate of the Nova Scotia Research Foundation and published over fifty scientific papers on the development of Nova Scotia plants. At the time of his death on 25 October 1957, he was working as a botanist for the Research Council of Nova Scotia.

Bell, John A.

  • Person
  • 1876-1941
John A. Bell was a physician born in 1876 in New Glasgow, Nova Scotia, the son of Senator A.C. Bell and Anne Henderson Bell. From 1892-1994 he studied arts at Dalhousie University and then switched to medicine at McGill, graduating with an MD in 1898. He pursued post-graduate studies in London, England, and returned to New Glasgow to set up his practice. In 1919 he undertook ear, nose and throat specialist medical studies at the Post Graduate Hospital in New York. Dr. Bell was secretary of the Pictou County Medical Society for nearly forty years, sat on the executive of the Medical Society of Nova Scotia, served on the New Glasgow Town Council and also in the Legislative Council of Nova Scotia. He was married to Elizabeth M. Kopf, with whom he had four children. He died on 27 May 1941 following an operation at Victoria General Hospital.

Bell, Robert, 1841-1917

  • Person

Robert Bell was a Canadian geologist, professor and civil servant, and is considered one of Canada’s greatest exploring scientists, having named over 3000 geographical features. He was born in Toronto in 1841 to Presbyterian clergyman and amateur geologist, Reverend Andrew Bell, and Elizabeth Notman. In 1873 he married Agnes Smith, with whom he had four children.

As a teenager Bell worked as a summer assistant to Sir William Edmond Logan with the Geological Survey of Canada; by 1859 he was heading his own survey party. He was educated at McGill University, where he studied under John William Dawson. In 1861 he earned a civil engineering degree and the Governor General’s Medal. He studied for a further two years at the University of Edinburgh. In 1863 he was appointed professor of chemistry and natural sciences at Queen’s College, Kingston, but continued summer fieldwork for the Geographical Survey. In 1867 he joined the Survey full-time, where he remained until his retirement in 1908. He died in 1917.

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